Hainault Forest Website

Written and Designed by Brian Ecott

PLANT GALLS

Galls on Trees other than Oak

MAPLES  ASH  POPLARS  FRUITS  LIME  ALDER  ELM  BEECH  HORNBEAM  BIRCH  WILLOW  OTHERS

 
MAPLES

 

 

 

FIELD MAPLE SMALL RED PUSTULES

Agent:  Aceria myriadeum (= aceriscampestris)

A mite

Photo: 21st June 2013

Often covering whole of leaf. One leaf is turned to show back,

FIELD MAPLE  PUSTULE GALL normally found along main veins. Agent: Aceria macrochelus A Mite   Photo: 13th June 2013  near lake and below a more advanced gall which is red, 19th June 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FIELD MAPLE

Clusters of galls at base of leaf, sometimes distorting leaf.

Is this induced by the mite Aceria macrochelus as above or some other mite?

Scan 7th July 2014

SILVER MAPLE  RED PUSTULES above. Agent: Vasates quadripedes.

   A mite. A second record for Essex and a first for Hainault in 2002 

Scan: 13th June 2013 in plantation.

Spreading in Essex and personally seen in Norfolk 2010

 

SYCAMORE  FELT GALL  Agent: Aceria pseudoplatani   A mite  Photo: 12th June 2013  Left: Top of leaf. Right: Underside of leaf.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SYCAMORE   RED PUSTULES

Agent: Aceria macrorhynchus   A mite.

 

 Photo: 24th June 2013

ASH
SINGLE-LEAFED ASH F.e 'Diversifolia'. Leaf curl. Agent: Psyllopsis fraxini Plant louse  Near The Oak path entrance 31st May 2013.
ASH   KEY GALLS   Agent: Aceria fraxinivorus   A Mite.  Photo: 13th June 2013 in the plantation

ASH  LEAFLET ROLL GALL   Agent:  Psyllopsis fraxini   A plant louse.

Leaflet rolled downwards, tinged with red/purple. (Picture shows underside of leaf)  Photo: 13th June 2013.

  ASH   MIDRIB GALL  Agent:  Dasineura fraxini  A Midge  Photo: 21st June 2013

1. ASH  POD GALL Agent:  Dasineura acrophila  A Midge.    Leaflet folded upwards, midrib thickened like a pea pod.   Photo: May 2005

   2.  Single-leaved ASH  F. a. Veltheimii  MIDRIB GALL  Agent:  Dasineura fraxini  A midge  Photo: June 2004

POPLAR

1. ASPEN  LEAF ROLL GALL  Agent: Dasineura populeti A midge  Edges of leaf rolled upwards, hairy.    Photo: 20th August 2005.

2. ASPEN  PETIOLE GALL  Agent: Eriophyes diversipunctatus. A Mite. At base of leaf, one on each side of midrib.  Photo: August 1977.

Not seen since.

3. ASPEN   RED PEA GALL  Agent:   Harmandia tremulae  A midge.   Photo: July 200

1. Above and below pair: Small rounded gall with collar-like ring. 2.5mm. Agent: Harmandiola globuli. A midge  10th June 2013.

2. Centre pair: ASPEN Bulge on surface, erineum underneath Agent: Phyllocoptes populi A mite Scan: 10th June 2013. See also below.

3. Right pair: Two Galls on PETIOLE Agent: Contarinia petioli A midge 10th June 2013. Another gall in angle between midrib and right vein needs investigating further. (Could be Lasioptera populnea) Trees cut down by Woodland Trust!!

4. Close up of Petiole galls Contarinia petioli  10th June 2013

ASPEN Bulge on surface, erineum underneath Agent: Phyllocoptes populi A mite Scan: 27th August 2011

 1. BLACK POPLAR  SPIRAL GALL  Agent:  Pemphigus spyrothecae   An aphid.  Photo: August 2002

 2. BLACK POPLAR PURSE GALL  Agent:  Pemphigus bursarius   An aphid.  Rare in the forest  Photo: August 2002

 3. BLACK POPLAR  BULGE GALL  Agent: Taphrina populina  A fungus.  Photo: June 2004

BLACK POPLAR  SPIRAL GALL  Agent:  Pemphigus spyrothecae   An aphid.  Photo: 21sr June 2013

 

 

BLACK POPLAR PURSE GALL  Agent:  Pemphigus bursarius   An aphid.  Rare in the forest  Photo: 21st June 2013

A small spiral gall is nearer the leaf blade.

BLACK POPLAR  STALKED POUCH GALL Stalked pouch gall on midrib.  Photo: S.Sawhney.   June 2003 GREY POPLAR  SWOLLEN TWIG  Agent: Gypsonoma aceriana  A micro-moth caterpillar.   Twig contains caterpillar frass.  July 2004 
BLACK POPLAR  MIDRIB POUCH GALL Agent: Pemphigus populinigrae. An aphid  Upper side of leaf. BLACK POPLAR  MIDRIB POUCH GALL. Lower side of leaf showing slit.   Photo: 26th June 2008.

 

BLACK POPLAR  LEAF FOLD GALL  Agent: Thecabius affinis  An aphid.  Photo: June 2004

FRUITS

Above: BIRD CHERRY POCKET PLUMS  Agent: Taphrina padi  A fungus  Near main entrance. 10th June 2013

Left: WILD PLUM   LEAF EDGE PUSTULES   Agent:  Eriophyes similis 

A mite  Photo: 24th June 2013

BLACKTHORN  POCKET PLUMS   Agent:  Taphrina pruni  A fungus    Photo: Hoghill 11th June 2013  The normal developing dark green sloes can be seen top left

Left: BLACKTHORN  LEAF EDGE PUSTULES  Agent:  Eriophyes similis. A Mite.   Common.   Photo: 12th June 2013

Right: BLACKTHORN  CENTER LEAF PUSTULES  Agent:  A Mite.   Needs to be determined  Photo: 5th May 2013

WILD APPLE  ROSY LEAF CURLING APPLE GALL Agent: Dysaphis devecta An aphid  Photo: 12th June 2013 behind the caf. Close up (right)  shows grey aphids

1. WILD APPLE LEAF EDGE ROLL GALL  Agent: Dasineura mali A midge    Photograph: 20 August 2005.

2. CRAB APPLE Erineum on back of leaf.  Agent: Phyllocoptes malinus A mite.   Photo: 9th May 2009

3. APPLE WOODY SWELLINGS ON BARK  Agent: Eriosoma lanigerum Woolly aphid   Photograph: 11th December 2005.

 

 

PEAR  ORANGE PATCH on leaf  Agent: Gymnosporangium sabinae  A rust fungus  Upper and underside of leaf.  August 2004

PEAR  SMOOTH  PUSTULES  Agent: Eriophyes pyri   A mite   Photo: July 2004. A hole in some of the erinea is seen on the underside of the leaf.

ROWAN  PUSTULE on leaflets with opening upper or lower leaflet. Agent: Eriophyes sorbi  A mite.  Photo: 10th May 2009.

1. WHITEBEAM  PUSTULE GALLS   Agent:  Phytoptus arianus  A Mite.   Numerous pustules on upper leaf.  Photo: May 2001

2.  PURGING BUCKTHORN Leaf margin rolled up and thickened. Agent: Trichochermes walkeri   A plant louse  Photo: 28 May 2005

 

 

 

 

 

WILD SERVICE TREE   ROUNDED PUSTULES  

Agent: Eriophyes torminalis  A mite  

Photo: 25th June 2013

Underside of right leaf shown.

1. & 2.. HAWTHORN  POCKS ON LEAF  with close up detail   Agent:  Aceria crataegi   An mite . Photo: June 2005

3. HAWTHORN  BUTTON-TOP GALL  Agent:  Dasineura crataegi  A midge.  Photo: June 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAWTHORN RED FOLD GALL downwards, along the midrib.

Agent: Dysaphis crataegi

 An aphid.

Photo: 9th May 2009

HAWTHORN  LEAF EDGE ROLL DOWN GALL  Agent:   Phyllocoptes goniothorax  A mite     Photo: 21st June 2013

 

 

 

 

HAWTHORN LEAF EDGE ROLL DOWN GALL as above and

underside of a LEAF BULGE showing red hair erineum.

Agent also Phyllocoptes goniothorax.  Scan  7th July 2014.

LIME
COMMON LIME Yellow or Pink blisters on upper leaf with white or pink erineum underneath. Agent: Eriophyes leiosoma A mite   May 2009

1. COMMON LIME LEAF EDGE ROLLED UP  Agent: Dasineura tiliae A Gall midge  Photo: 22 May 2005

2. COMMON LIME  LEAF VEIN GALL  Agent:  Eriophyes exilis   A Mite.  A small gall found in the angle of veins.  Photo: July 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMMON LIME PETIOLE GALL  Agent: Contarinia tiliarum  A gall midge  

also found on midrib (top left leaf).

Hog Hill and Hainault Lodge LNR.

Photo: 24th June 2013

 

 

 

COMMON LIME  NAIL GALLS

Agent:  Eriophyes tiliae.  A mite.

  Photo: 19th June 2013

 

 

 

 

 

COMMON LIME

Short blunt red nail galls (compare with above).

Agent: Eriophyes lateannulatus   A mite

21st June 2013

ALDER
ALDER Rounded pouches on leaf, opening under. Agent: Eriophyes laevis A mite.  Foxburrows farm.  5th June 2013
1. & 2. ALDER BLISTER and ERINEUM under leaf. Agent:  Acalitus brevitarsus. A mite.  Photo: 10th May 2009
3. ALDER  VEIN ANGLE GALL  Agent:  Eriophyes inangulis  A mite   Photo: June 2003
ELM

1. & 2. WYCH ELM FIG GALL  Agent: Tetraneura ulmi  An aphid.  The leaf on the left is stunted.  Photos: 21st May 2007.

3. WYCH ELM LEAF ROLL GALL  Agent Eriosoma ulmi  An aphid  Photo: 21st May 2007

1. SMALL LEAVED ELM PUSTULE GALLS  Agent: Aceria ulmicola.  A Mite. Numerous pustules on upper surface of leaf. Photo: July 2004.

2. SMALL LEAVED ELM  BAG GALL  Agent:  Eriosoma lanuginosum   An aphid  Leaf forming large pouch containing waxy aphids. Found on the golf course. Photo: July 2004

BEECH

Left above: BEECH White erineum on upper leaf veins  Agent: Aceria nervisequa  A mite.   Photo  12th June 2013

Right above: BEECH BLISTERS and white ERINEUM between leaf veins on underside.  Agent: Aceria nervisequa  A mite.  9th May 2009.

1. BEECH  TIGHT UPWARD ROLL GALL  Agent:  Acalitus stenapsis   A mite  Hainault Lodge  Photo: June 2003

2. BEECH  HAIRY GALL  Agent:  Hartigiola annulipes  A Midge  Photo: August 2000

HORNBEAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

HORNBEAM  LEAF VEIN DISTORTED GALL

Agent:  Aceria macrotrichus   A Mite.

Veins under leaf distorted. 

Photo: 12th June 2013

Left: HORNBEAM  MIDRIB GALL  Agent:  Zygobia carpin A midge  Photo: July 2002

Right: HORNBEAM GALLS IN MIDRIB VEIN ANGLE  Agent: Aceria tenellus   A mite    Photo: August 2004

BIRCH

Left: SHINY BULGES ALONG MIDRIB, Erineum hairs underneath.  Agent: Eriophyes leionotus. A mite   Photo: 18th June 2013

Right: BIRCH BLISTER with ERINEUM underneath. Agent: Acalitus rudis. A mite. Photo: 9th May 2009

 

Birch mite galls are complex need to be determined by identification of the mites concerned and not just morphology.

1. SILVER BIRCH  SEEDS GALLED IN CATKIN   Agent: Samudobia betulae  A midge   Photo: July 04  Photo shows two normal winged seeds, 4mm wide.

2. SILVER BIRCH  SEEDS GALLED IN CATKIN  Agent: Samudobia tarda  A midge   Photo: July 04  Photo shows two normal winged seeds. New Essex record.

NOTE Samudobia betulae (above left) has a round window pit in the top half of the seed, and the seeds have reduced wings. Samudobia tarda (above right) has an indistinct window pit in the lower half  and the wings are almost absent.

1. SILVER BIRCH  BIRCH ROOT GALL  Agent: Agrobacterium tumefaciens  A soil bacterium  Photo: 25th February 2007. The Heathland.

The gall is 11cm in width and 8 cm depth like a small swede.

2. BIRCH BIG BUD GALL  Agent: Acalitus calycophthirus A mite.  Photo: 9th May 2009

WILLOWS

ROSETTE  OR CAMELLIA GALLS ON WILLOWS

1. WHITE WILLOW Agent: Rabdophaga rosaria  A midge  Terminal leaves distorted to form a rosette. 29th July 2006. By the lake.

2. CRACK WILLOW   Agent: Rabdophaga rosaria  A midge Terminal leaves distorted to form a rosette  20th July 2006. By the lake.

 

 

 

CRACK WILLOW  KIDNEY BEAN GALL  Agent:  Pontania proxima  A sawfly 

Scan:  15th June 2013

 WHITE WILLOW  KIDNEY BEAN GALL  Agent:   Pontania proxima  A sawfly.  Photo: 18th August 2013 

1. CRACK WILLOW SHOOT TIP GALL Agent: Rabdophaga terminalis  A midge. Photograph 20 August 2005.

2. CRACK WILLOW LEAF EDGE ROLLED  Agent: Aculus magnirostris  A mite  Photo: 9th May 2009

WHITE WILLOW Leaf edge rolls upper and under leaf (above and right) Agent: Aculus craspedobius A mite  Scan: 28th August 2011 by the lake.

WHITE WILLOW Small reddish pustules  Agent: Aculus tetanothrix  A mite Scan: 18th August 2013 by the lake. 

KIDNEY BEAN GALL Pontania proxima  also present

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SALLOW Small reddish pustules - upper (left) and under leaf  (right)

 Iteomyia capreae  A mite 

Scan: 28th August 2011 near golf course.

 

SALLOW Slightly hairy PEA SIZED GALL on underside of leaf with a small circular shiny patch on top of leaf.

Agent: Eupontania pedunculi  A sawfly

Photograph: 18th June 2013

Galls on Sallow stems or on female catkins. Causative agent not know. May be Viral or Mycoplasma. Photos 19th June 2013.
OTHERS
FALSE ACACIA  leaflet folded down gall Agent: Obolodiplosis robiniae Gall midge. 21st October 2012. Hainault Lodge Nature Reserve

 

 

SPINDLE   LEAF ROLL GALL

Agent:  Eriophyes convolvens  A Mite.

Leaf edge tightly rolledCommon

Photo: July 2005.